Remembering the "Market" in Market Monetarism
A couple of days ago the young and talented George Mason University economist Alex Salter wrote the following statement on his Facebook account:
I wish market monetarists would put relatively more emphasis on the "market" bit.I agree with Alex as I believe that one of the main points of Market Monetarism is that not only do money matters, but it equally important that markets matter. Hence, it is no coincidence that the slogan of my blog is "markets matter, money matters" and it was after all me who coined the phrase Market Monetarism. Paul Krugman used to call Scott Sumner a quasi-monetarist, but I always thought that that missed an important point about Scott's views (and my own views) and that of course is the "market" bit. In fact Alex's statement reminded me of a blog post that I wrote back in January 2012 on exactly this topic. This is from my post "Don't forget the "Market" in Market Monetarism":
As traditional monetarists Market Monetarists see money as being at the centre of macroeconomic discussion. To us both inflation and recessions are monetary phenomena. If central banks print too much money we get inflation and if they print to little money we get recession or even depression. This is often at the centre of the arguments made by Market Monetarists. However, we are exactly Market Monetarists because we have a broader view of monetary policy than traditional monetarists. We deeply believe in markets as the best “information system” – also about the stance of monetary policy. Even though we certainly do not disregard the value of studying monetary supply numbers we believe that the best indicator(s) of monetary policy stance is market pricing in currency markets, commodity markets, fixed income markets and equity markets. Hence, we believe in a Market Approach to monetary policy in the tradition of for example of “Manley” Johnson and Robert Keheler.Interestingly enough Alex himself has just recently put out a new working paper - "There a Self-Enforcing Monetary Constitution?" - that makes the exact same point. This is the abstract from Alex's paper:
This paper uses insights from monetary theory and constitutional political economy to discover what a self-enforcing monetary constitution — one whose rules did not require external enforcement — would look like. I argue that a desirable monetary constitution (a) institutionalizes an environment conducive to economic calculation via an unhampered price mechanism and (b) enables agents acting within the system to uphold the rule even in the presence of deviations from ideal knowledge and incentive assumptions. I show two radical alternatives to current monetary institutions — a version of NGDP targeting that relies on market implementation of monetary policy and free banking — meet these requirements, and thus represent self-enforcing monetary constitutions. I ultimately conclude that the maintenance of a stable monetary framework necessitates branching out from monetary theory narrowly conceived and considering insights from political economy, and constitutional political economy in particular.I very much like Alex's constitutional spin on the monetary policy issue. I strongly agree that the biggest problem in the conduct of monetary policy - basically everywhere in the world - is the lack of a clear rule based framework for the monetary system and equally agree that NGDP targeting with "market implication" and Free Banking fulfill the requirement for a monetary constitution. Or as I put it in my 2012 post:
In fact we want to take out both the “central” and “banking” out of central banking and ideally replace monetary policy makers with the power of the market. Scott Sumner has suggested that the central banks should use NGDP futures in the conduct of monetary policy. In Scott’s set-up monetary policy ideally becomes “endogenous”. I on my part have suggested the use of prediction markets in the conduct of monetary policy. ...Even though Market Monetarists do not necessarily advocate Free Banking there is no doubt that Market Monetarist theory is closely related to the thinking of Free Banking theorist such as George Selgin and I have early argued that NGDP level targeting could be see as an “privatisation strategy”. A less ambitious interpretation of Market Monetarism is certainly also possible, but no matter what Market Monetarists stress the importance of markets – both in analysing monetary policy and in the conduct monetary policy.Hence, Alex and I are in fundamental agreement, but I also want to acknowledge that we - the Market Monetarists - from time to time are more (too?) focused on the need to ease monetary policy - in the present situation in the US or the euro zone - than to talk about "market implementation" of monetary policy. There are numerous reasons for this, but the key reason is probably one of political realism, but there is also a serious risk in letting "political realism" dictate the agenda. Therefore, I think we should listen to Alex's advice and try to stress the "market" bit in Market Monetarism a bit more. Afterall, we have made serious inroads in the global monetary policy debate in regard to NGDP level targeting - why should we not be able to make the same kind of progress when it comes to "market implementation" of monetary policy?